1.What is the psychological term for the symptoms James experiences after abstaining from consuming
alcohol? How do changes in the functioning of neurotransmitter systems produce these symptoms?
2.With reference to associative learning principles/models/theories, why does James consume alcohol
to alleviate these symptoms? What motivates his drinking behaviour given that he no longer enjoys this
activity (most of the time)?
3.How do these factors prevent James from quitting his drinking, and lead to a cycle of relapse when he
attempts to do so? Why are these processes important for our understanding of addiction and
substance use disorders?