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In this assignment, you will be challenged to look at how statistical tests, such as correlation are commonly used and the possible limitations of such analyses. In addition, you will need to identify the appropriate application of course-specified statistical tests, examine assumptions and limitations of course specified statistical tests, and communicate in writing critiques of statistical tests.

Much has been written about the relationship between students’ SAT test scores and their family’s income. Generally speaking, there is a strong positive correlation between income and SAT scores. Consider and discuss the following questions as you respond:

What does this correlation tell you?
Is this correlation evidence that having a high family income causes one to have high SAT scores?
Is this correlation evidence that high SAT scores are a cause of higher income? Or, does this tell you something else? Explain your answer.
Explain why correlation alone is rarely sufficient to demonstrate cause.

Article

Kirwan, J., Lounsbury, J., Gibson, L. (2010). Self-direction in learning and personality: The Big Five and narrow personality traits in relation to learner self-directionreview the document. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning, 7(2), 21-34. Retrieved from http://sdlglobal.com/IJSDL/IJSDL7.2-2010.pdf#page=25

This is an article about personality, self-directed learning, and scale development and the major traits that may affect them. These include: agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness. It incorporates correlation and regression procedures with tables that display the statistical results.

Stark, P.B. (2013). Chapter 9: Regression (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Retrieved from http://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~stark/SticiGui/Text/regression.htm

This website contains several video lectures and examples of how regression is used.

Trochim, W. M. (2006). Correlation (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. In Research Methods Knowledge Base. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statcorr.php

This website contains many tutorials and tools for statistical analyses and methods used in the social sciences. This particular page is a detailed description, with examples and graphs, to help understand correlation statistics.

Websites

VassarStats: Website for Statistical Computation (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. (http://vassarstats.net/)

This website includes tools to calculate many of the statistical tests we cover in this course including t-tests, ANOVA, correlation, and regression. Each calculator includes a tutorial and/or walkthrough.

Web Center for Social Research Methods (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. (http://socialresearchmethods.net/)

This website includes links to numerous tools and tutorials relating to statistical concepts, calculations, and scale development.

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